PART 2:  DISCIPLINARY OFFERINGS

This section of the Academic Program (Redbook) presents descriptions of the academic disciplines within which USMA majors.  A complete list of the Military Academy's majors appears in Part 4.

 

ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE DESCRIPTIONS


Chemical Engineering (CEN1 )

Chemical engineering is perhaps the broadest and most diverse field in all of engineering. Any commercial process or product that uses or contains molecules probably involved a chemical engineer at some stage of development. This includes all materials used by the military, including such basic items as food, clothing, fuel, water, explosives, metals, polymers, ceramics, semiconductors, medicines, artificial organs, and prostheses, just to name a few. Chemical engineers design these materials at the molecular level, optimize the design for specific applications, and develop efficient methods for production, packaging, and distribution. Chemical engineers are also very concerned with the conversion between matter and energy, particularly since almost all chemical reactions require or produce energy. In terms of contemporary societal problems, chemical engineers are at the forefront of the effort to design new and more efficient fuels, and we are critical to efforts at environmental remediation, including waste recycling and remediation. Within the military, chemical engineers are uniquely qualified to address problems in fuel and water production and distribution, power generation, as well as detection, decontamination, and protection against chemical and biological agents.

The mission of the chemical engineering program is to prepare commissioned leaders of character who are proficient in applying chemical and engineering principles to solve problems in a complex operational environment.

During a career as commissioned officers in the United States Army and beyond, program graduates:
(1) Demonstrate effective leadership and chemical engineering expertise.
(2) Contribute to the solution of infrastructure or operational problems in a complex operational environment.
(3) Succeed in graduate school or other advanced study programs.
(4) Advance their careers through clear and precise technical communication.

On completion of the chemical engineering program, our graduates demonstrate an ability to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles of engineering, science, and mathematics.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Apply engineering design to produce solutions that meet specified needs with consideration of public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Communicate effectively with a range of audiences.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgments, which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a collaborative and inclusive environment, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Develop and conduct appropriate experimentation, analyze and interpret data, and use engineering judgment to draw conclusions.

Student Learning Outcome 7

Acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies.

Student Learning Outcome 8

Understand the chemical engineering curriculum, including chemistry, material and energy balances, safety and environmental factors, thermodynamics of physical and chemical equilibria, heat, mass, and momentum transfer, chemical reaction engineering, continuous and staged separation processes, process dynamics and control, modern experimental and computing techniques, and process design.


Chemistry (CHM1 )

Chemistry is the branch of sciences that studies the composition, structure, properties, changes and interactions of matter. Every material thing - from the foods we eat, to the medicine we take, to the air we breathe - is a chemical or a mixture of chemicals. Therefore, it is truly the central science and underpins much of the efforts of scientists and engineers to improve life for humankind. Since chemistry is the molecular science, military applications of chemistry rely on the understanding of the structure and changes at the molecular level. These application areas can include the synthesis and development of advanced materials and explosives, solving environmental problems, creating innovative biotechnology solutions, and chemical or biological sensing.

The Chemistry Major includes all the courses recommended by the American Chemical Society and are designed to provide cadets with basic instruction with comparable emphasis on the areas of analytical chemistry, biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry and physical chemistry. Cadets are required to complete a core sequence. In addition, cadets must complete a three-course engineering sequence and may choose from any of the sequences offered. Ten courses are required to complete the major. Thus, the Chemistry Major requires a total of 40 courses to be taken or validated. Cadets choosing this program will complete an integrative experience (CH487 Advanced Chemistry Laboratory) that will examine the social, economic, political, and technological aspects of chemistry. The Chemistry Major with ACS Certification includes one elective course and two research courses (CH489 and CH490). The Chemistry Major with ACS Certification and Honors requires cadets to complete the course requirements for the CHM1A major while attaining a minimum APSC of 3.0 in the core curriculum and 3.5 in the major.

Graduates who complete a Chemistry Major will be able to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

    Use information resources to gather, organize, and understand scientific material.

Student Learning Outcome 2

    Design and execute experiments to address a problem or question.

Student Learning Outcome 3

    Analyze and assess scientific data gathered in the laboratory.

Student Learning Outcome 4

    Effectively and clearly communicate scientific information in written and oral form to a variety of audiences.

Student Learning Outcome 5

    Understand the applications of chemistry in the Army and society.

Student Learning Outcome 6

    Recognize the relationship between the properties of a substance, its molecular structure, and its reactivity.

Student Learning Outcome 7

    Understand and apply the physical concepts of chemistry.


Civil Engineering (CVN1 )

Civil Engineers design, build, and maintain the infrastructure of modern civilization. Civil Engineers are unique problem solvers, who apply their technical know-how to meet the challenges of disaster relief, deteriorating facilities, traffic congestion, floods, earthquakes, environmental contamination, and community planning. The Civil Engineering program is accredited by the Engineering Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org. Civil Engineering majors apply the knowledge of mathematics and science; analyze and solve problems in structural, geotechnical, hydraulic/hydrology, construction engineering; conduct experiments in Civil Engineering technical areas, and analyze and interpret the resulting data; design a Civil Engineering project; use probability and statistics to address uncertainty; include principles of sustainability in design; explain basic concepts in project management, business, public policy, and leadership; analyze issues in professional ethics; and explain the importance of professional licensure. Civil Engineering majors engage in a year-long capstone project requiring them to identify, formulate, and solve open-ended and complex engineering problem in teams. The teams use an iterative design process to define the problem and requirements, analyze alternatives within constraints (e.g., applicable codes and standards), and select the best alternative to solve the problem. The design process takes into consideration public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors. Teams communicate their process and solution through written deliverables and presentations to a range of audiences. In the Army, Civil Engineers provide leadership and technical abilities to support combat operations and manage the infrastructure at Army installations worldwide. As part of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Civil Engineers provide vital public engineering to support our Nation's security, energize the economy, and reduce risks from disasters. Cadets who maintain good standing in the Civil Engineering major take the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam during the spring semester of their First-Class year. Passing the FE exam is the essential first step in becoming a registered professional Civil Engineer.

Graduates who major in Civil Engineering will achieve the following Civil Engineering Program Educational Objectives within a few years after graduation. Civil Engineering majors are expected to attain:
1.   MULTIPLE POSITIONS OF RESPONSIBILITY as Army leaders in which they (a) drive outcomes, (b) inform, influence, and inspire others, and (c) build teams.
2.   PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL GROWTH through formal and informal learning opportunities while serving as professional role models to others.
3.   EXPERIENCE IN PROVIDING ENGINEERING EXPERTISE to the Army and Nation to design solutions, solve complex and technical problems, and innovate for winning in a complex environment.

To achieve these objectives, cadets will demonstrate the following Civil Engineering Student Outcomes:

At the time of graduation, Civil Engineering majors will have attained:

Student Learning Outcome 1

an ability to identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles of engineering, science, and mathematics

Student Learning Outcome 2

an ability to apply engineering design to produce solutions that meet specified needs with consideration of public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors

Student Learning Outcome 3

an ability to communicate effectively with a range of audiences

Student Learning Outcome 4

an ability to recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgments, which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts

Student Learning Outcome 5

an ability to function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a collaborative and inclusive environment, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives

Student Learning Outcome 6

an ability to develop and conduct appropriate experimentation, analyze and interpret data, and use engineering judgment to draw conclusions

Student Learning Outcome 7

an ability to acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies


Civil Engineering Major (CVN2 )

Civil Engineers design, build, and maintain the infrastructure of modern civilization. Civil Engineers are unique problem solvers, who apply their technical know-how to meet the challenges of disaster relief, deteriorating facilities, traffic congestion, floods, earthquakes, environmental contamination, and community planning. The Civil Engineering program is accredited by the Engineering Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org. Civil Engineering majors apply the knowledge of mathematics and science; analyze and solve problems in structural, geotechnical, hydraulic/hydrology, construction engineering; conduct experiments in Civil Engineering technical areas, and analyze and interpret the resulting data; design a Civil Engineering project; use probability and statistics to address uncertainty; include principles of sustainability in design; explain basic concepts in project management, business, public policy, and leadership; analyze issues in professional ethics; and explain the importance of professional licensure. Civil Engineering majors engage in a year-long capstone project requiring them to identify, formulate, and solve open-ended and complex engineering problem in teams. The teams use an iterative design process to define the problem and requirements, analyze alternatives within constraints (e.g., applicable codes and standards), and select the best alternative to solve the problem. The design process takes into consideration public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors. Teams communicate their process and solution through written deliverables and presentations to a range of audiences. In the Army, Civil Engineers provide leadership and technical abilities to support combat operations and manage the infrastructure at Army installations worldwide. As part of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Civil Engineers provide vital public engineering to support our Nation's security, energize the economy, and reduce risks from disasters. Cadets who maintain good standing in the Civil Engineering major take the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam during the spring semester of their First-Class year. Passing the FE exam is the essential first step in becoming a registered professional Civil Engineer.

Graduates who major in Civil Engineering will achieve the following Civil Engineering Program Educational Objectives within a few years after graduation. Civil Engineering majors are expected to attain:
1.   MULTIPLE POSITIONS OF RESPONSIBILITY as Army leaders in which they (a) drive outcomes, (b) inform, influence, and inspire others, and (c) build teams.
2.   PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL GROWTH through formal and informal learning opportunities while serving as professional role models to others.
3.   EXPERIENCE IN PROVIDING ENGINEERING EXPERTISE to the Army and Nation to design solutions, solve complex and technical problems, and innovate for winning in a complex environment.

To achieve these objectives, cadets will demonstrate the following Civil Engineering Student Outcomes:
At the time of graduation, Civil Engineering majors will have attained:

Student Learning Outcome 1

an ability to identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles of engineering, science, and mathematics

Student Learning Outcome 2

an ability to apply engineering design to produce solutions that meet specified needs with consideration of public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors

Student Learning Outcome 3

an ability to communicate effectively with a range of audiences

Student Learning Outcome 4

an ability to recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgments, which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts

Student Learning Outcome 5

an ability to function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a collaborative and inclusive environment, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives

Student Learning Outcome 6

an ability to develop and conduct appropriate experimentation, analyze and interpret data, and use engineering judgment to draw conclusions

Student Learning Outcome 7

an ability to acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies


Computer Science (CSC1 )

Computer scientists analyze, plan, design, and build computer systems. Within this broad area of computer system design, the computer science program at USMA provides cadets the opportunity to focus on the design of computer software components and the implementation of software systems. The program provides a solid introduction to the general field of computer science, including computer theory, computer programming, algorithm analysis, data structures, software testing and development, computer organization, programming languages, operating systems, and the design of large software systems. According to your interests, you may pursue further study in artificial intelligence, computer graphics, computer networks, cyber security, and other topics. The opportunity to accomplish advanced individual study under the direction of a faculty member is available to those who are interested and qualified. Whether operating a remote sensor network from a fire base in Afghanistan, managing logistics from a Brigade Support Area in Kuwait, pattern matching events for intelligence purposes in Iraq, or simply understanding the computational feasibility of solving a complex problem, the Computer Science major prepares you to succeed as a leader in any branch of the Army and is a superb foundation for advanced civil schooling. The USMA Computer Science major is accredited by the Computing Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org.

The Program Educational Objectives (PEO) for Computer Science are that, five to seven years after graduation, graduates who majored in Computer Science will have been successful Army officers who:
A. Initiated and completed tasks that identify aspects of a complex situation that can be enhanced by using computing technology.
B. Applied computing knowledge and skills while using an engineering process individually or in diverse teams to develop computing technology applications.
C. Used effective communication to explain new computing technology to war fighters in support of current and emerging Army war fighting doctrine.
D. Grown professionally through self-study, continuing education and professional development.

To support these objectives, at the time of graduation, Computer Science graduates will have an ability to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Analyze a complex computing problem and apply principles of computing and other relevant disciplines to identify solutions.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Design, implement, and evaluate a computing-based solution to meet a given set of computing requirements in the context of the computer science discipline.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Communicate effectively in a variety of professional contexts.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Recognize professional responsibilities and make informed judgments in computing practice based on legal and ethical principles.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Function effectively as a member or leader of a team engaged in activities appropriate to the computer science discipline.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Apply computer science theory and software development fundamentals to produce computing-based solutions.


Defense and Strategic Studies (DSS2 )

The Defense & Strategic Studies (DSS) academic major will continue to reach the Academy's overarching goal through a multidisciplinary approach in its program structure and an interdisciplinary approach within its courses. The program will continue to draw upon military science, history, economics, political science, geography, leadership, information technology and law to understand the nature of war and the military instrument of national power.

DSS Major Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives

Student Learning Outcome 1

Evaluate military strategic decision-making by applying appropriate theoretical, historical, policy and interdisciplinary knowledge.

a. Cadets can develop a diverse and appropriate base of knowledge to effectively evaluate strategic choices, to include formal strategies and military systems, using a holistic approach.
b. Cadets can explain the relationship between tactics, operations and strategy with an emphasis on the strategic effect of tactical action.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Cadets can frame complex, multifaceted strategic problems relating to the military component of national power and the potential use of force.

a. Cadets can deconstruct the problem into its essential components and describe how they interrelate by effectively examining the political and military context.
b. Cadets can identify relevant stakeholders, interests and policy objectives for state and non-state actors.
c. Cadets can explain the influence that state and non-state actors' organizations, capabilities and systems have on the problem definition.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Cadets can apply theoretical frameworks, strategic planning models and critical thinking to construct viable and innovative ways to solve strategic problems.

a. Cadets can identify and apply relevant theories and models to forming viable and innovative solutions.
b. Cadets can translate well researched, reliable evidence into useful conclusions.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Cadets can Communicate and connect with a diverse range of audiences in order to frame and deliver an insightful strategic analyses.

a. Cadets can formulate a clear, direct message that communicates the fundamental conclusion(s) up front.
b. Cadets can persuasively communicate the necessary evidence and reasoning by logically organizing the information or argument.
c. Cadets can effectively communicate through oral presentation by keeping the audience engaged with creativity, poise and competence.
d. Cadets can effectively communicate through writing by being precise, concise and clear.


Diversity and Inclusion Studies Minor (DIS0N)

Diversity and Inclusion Studies is an interdisciplinary minor centered in the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership that crosses and consists of humanities and social science courses. America is a multicultural polity and demands knowledgeable and pragmatic thinkers who understand the range of human experiences. The Diversity and Inclusion Studies Minor (DISM) exposes cadets to varied perspectives and methodologies for understanding and studying from the humanities, social, and behavioral sciences. By carefully drawing from already existing courses in multiple departments, the DISM complements and enhances the core curriculum, academic majors, and several West Point Centers and committees. The DISM not only addresses the Superintendent's vision for diversity and inclusion at West Point, but also enhances the efforts of the newly established diversity offices at West Point and throughout the Department of Defense. Moreover, the DISM at West Point offers cadets a framework for critically and creatively thinking about the broader impact of diversity and inclusion at the individual, organizational, societal, and/or global levels as well as provides opportunities to pursue diversity and inclusion in intra-, multi- and interdisciplinary ways. Cadets interested in this minor should contact the DISM DAC in the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership.

Graduates with a minor in Diversity and Inclusion Studies should be able to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Analyze, apply, and synthesize a broad range of methodologies for and theories of the critical study of diversity and inclusion, including how diversity and inclusion change in varied historical and social contexts.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Discuss and demonstrate an understanding of difference and empathy for others.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Conduct directed study of the core theoretical, legal, literary, geographical, historical, social, psychological, environmental, and/or policy topics related to diversity and inclusion.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Identify and critically assess explanations for construction of specific categories/groups such as sex/gender; race/ethnicity/nation; socio-economic class; religious affiliation; age; (dis)ability; sexual orientation; and cultures. Critically analyze the relation between constructed groups and access to power.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Describe the various ways in which different types of social actors have experienced diversity, inclusion, and exclusion over the course of history; explain and critically analyze the causes of these social actors' successes, struggles, transformations, and failures.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Analyze and integrate inclusion in multiple contexts, cultures and historical periods.


Economics (ECN2 )

The Economics major provides critical thinking skills applied to human behavior and answers the questions: "What is produced?; How is it produced?; and To whom is it allocated?" Mathematical models are used to develop and test optimal resource allocation mechanisms. These models also provide the necessary foundation to analyze policy regimes within individual markets as well as aggregate economies. These skills are directly applicable to decision makers in tactical command positions who must achieve desirable outcomes with personnel and equipment constraints as well as national strategic decision makers who face similar aggregate constraints. The Economics major also provides deep proficiency in quantitative methods, particularly nonlinear optimization, for more specialized areas such as Operations Research, Resource Management, and Strategist.

Economics Major Student Learning Outcomes

Student Learning Outcome 1

Constrained Optimization: Cadets can derive the objective functions and resource constraints facing individuals, firms, and governments, and then solve the relevant optimization problems to describe and predict the behavior of economic agents.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Market Analysis: Using the outcomes derived from optimization, Cadets can explain how markets and the aggregate economy achieve equilibrium, and then predict how changes in the economic environment impact individual markets and the aggregate economy.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Market Efficiency: Cadets can apply economic models of individual, firm, and government behavior to evaluate whether equilibrium in a market achieves economic efficiency (the maximization of total surplus).

Student Learning Outcome 4

Marginal Analysis: Cadets can apply the concept of equalization at the margin to explain and evaluate individual, firm, and government behavior, as well as perform cost-benefit analyses of government policies.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Incentives: Cadets can explain the central role of incentives in shaping the behavior of economic agents and design incentive structures that promote efficient outcomes.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Strategic Decision Making: Cadets can model and evaluate economic environments in which the actions of economic agents are interdependent.

Student Learning Outcome 7

Risk and Uncertainty: Cadets can model and evaluate the impact of uncertain economic outcomes due to either random shocks or the strategic behavior of economic agents, and explain how differential aversion to risk across individuals, firms, and governments affects market outcomes.

Student Learning Outcome 8

Information: Cadets can model and evaluate the effects of costly, limited, and asymmetric information on economic decision making, and derive policies to mitigate the efficiency losses arising from imperfect and incomplete information.

Student Learning Outcome 9

Global Economic Linkages: Cadets can model economic interactions of individual consumers, investors, firms and governments in international goods, capital, and currency markets, and evaluate the efficiency costs of government policies that restrain economic exchange among nations.

Student Learning Outcome 10

Political Economy: Cadets can apply economic models to understand behaviors of agents in political and other "non-economic" settings, and use models drawn from allied social science fields (Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, and Geography) to derive richer explanations of the behavior of individuals, firms and organizations (including governments).

Student Learning Outcome 11

Government Intervention in Markets: Cadets can use economic models to evaluate the impact(s) of government regulations and policies on market outcomes, as well as design interventions that improve economic efficiency or minimize efficiency losses.

Student Learning Outcome 12

Macroeconomic Stabilization: Cadets can use economic models to explain and predict fluctuations in key macroeconomic variables, and design fiscal and monetary policies to dampen these fluctuations.

Student Learning Outcome 13

Economic Growth: Cadets can build models that explain and predict the determinants of economic growth in the long-run, evaluate the impact(s) of government policies on growth, and design policies to promote economic growth.

Student Learning Outcome 14

Empirical Methods: Cadets can: apply economic theory to identify testable hypotheses; collect the requisite data and use appropriate empirical methods to test hypotheses; develop empirical models that can identify the causal effect of an economic variable of interest on an outcome of interest; and interpret the findings from statistical and empirical analyses as well as explain their relevance to policy making.


Electrical Engineering (EEN1 )

The impact of the electronics revolution on our daily lives may exceed that of the industrial revolution. The advent of the integrated circuit and the microprocessor have made possible phenomenal advances in such varied fields as medicine, communications, manufacturing, computation, education, energy conversion, and weapons systems. Electrical engineers are at the forefront of this revolution, using the principles of physics, mathematics and the engineering sciences to develop new and innovative applications of electronics. Regardless of branch, officers will surely be involved with electronic systems in military hardware. The courses in the electrical engineering curriculum are directly applicable to the Army you will lead. As a student of electrical engineering you will develop a mastery of the fundamental elements of circuit theory, electromagnetic fields and waves, electronics, digital computer logic and electromechanical energy conversion. You will then study in greater depth subjects selected from the areas of robotics, communications, opto-electronics, alternative energy and cyber engineering. The program emphasizes practical design, hands-on laboratory and computer experience, teamwork, and interdisciplinary projects.
The program additionally provides a sound basis for graduate schooling in electrical engineering and related fields as well as fulfilling the disciplinary depth component of the USMA curriculum. The Electrical Engineering Program is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org.

The Electrical Engineering Program objectives are that five to seven years after graduation cadets who major in Electrical Engineering will have been successful Army officers who have:
- Applied their engineering, management, and leadership skills in service of their country.
- Demonstrated intellectual growth through self-study, continuing education, and professional development in the Army.
- Provided technical leadership and disciplinary knowledge as Army officers with a broad understanding of the potential ethical and societal impacts of technology.
- Applied engineering methodology and creativity to Army problems while effectively communicating across mediums and cultures.

Expected Student Outcomes for graduating cadets in the Electrical Engineering major are to:-

Student Learning Outcome 1

Identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles of engineering, science, and mathematics

Student Learning Outcome 2

Apply engineering design to produce solutions that meet specified needs with consideration of public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors

Student Learning Outcome 3

Communicate effectively with a range of audiences

Student Learning Outcome 4

Recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgments, which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts

Student Learning Outcome 5

Function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a collaborative and inclusive environment, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives

Student Learning Outcome 6

Develop and conduct appropriate experimentation, analyze and interpret data, and use engineering judgment to draw conclusions

Student Learning Outcome 7

Acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies


Engineering Management (ENM1 )

Engineering Management majors study the engineering relationships among the management tasks of staffing, organizing, planning, financing, and the human element in production, research, engineering, and service organizations. By emphasizing leadership in a technical setting, the program builds on the traditional roles of the basic and applied sciences for engineering and technology management. Engineering managers must understand the interaction of organizational, technical, and behavioral variables in order to build a productive engineering team. Majors get a technical foundation in a specific engineering field of their choice: civil, mechanical, nuclear, electrical, environmental or general engineering. The program also provides a solid base of courses in personnel management, finance and accounting, engineering economy, production operations management, quantitative business analysis, project management, and computer modeling in order to prepare graduates to lead in a technical environment. The program culminates with a capstone design experience for a real client. The Engineering Management program at West Point is one of the top undergraduate programs in the nation and provides the academic foundations for a wide variety of activities important to Army officers of all branches. The Engineering Management Program is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org.

Engineering Management Program Educational Objectives: The Engineering Management program seeks to prepare future Army officers for productive and rewarding careers in the engineering or related profession for service to the Nation. Five to seven years after graduation, cadets who majored in Engineering Management will have been successful Army officers who:

1. Successfully lead and participate as a member of multi-disciplinary teams in a diverse cultural environment.
2. Apply critical thinking to their engineering, management, and leadership skills to design solutions to complex problems.
3. Demonstrate intellectual growth and continuous self-improvement through selfstudy, continuing education, and professional development.
4. Demonstrate effective communicating skills across a variety of mediums and cultures.
5. Act responsibly by upholding strict ethical and moral standards and considering impacts of decisions on social, political, economic, and technological issues.

To achieve these objectives, cadets will demonstrate the following Engineering Management Student Outcomes at the time of graduation:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Lead and work effectively as a contributing member of multidisciplinary engineering teams.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Lead the design or re-engineer of a system, process, or organization within realistic environmental constraints such as cultural, historical, legal, moral/ethical, economic, environmental, organizational, emotional, social, political, and technological.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Use the techniques, skills, modern engineering tools and technology necessary for engineering management practice.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Use systems thinking and engineering management techniques to identify, define, solve, recommend and implement the solution to a client's problem.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Monitor, assess and manage the broad global and societal impacts of engineering management problems, solutions and management decisions throughout the system lifecycle.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Use stakeholder analysis to identify contemporary issues in engineering management.

Student Learning Outcome 7

Apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering appropriate for Army officers and practicing engineering managers.

Student Learning Outcome 8

Design and conduct system experiments, including the ability to collect, analyze, and interpret system input and output data.

Student Learning Outcome 9

Accurately, clearly, and concisely report engineering findings, conclusions, and recommendations to clients and stakeholders to support decision making.

Student Learning Outcome 10

Demonstrate the skills necessary to support continued intellectual growth and learning for a career of professional excellence and service to the Nation as an officer in the United States Army.

Student Learning Outcome 11

Act professionally and ethically as a leader of character.


Engineering Psychology (EPS0 )

Engineering Psychology is one of four majors available through the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership. It bridges the disciplines of experimental psychology and engineering by providing cadets with a strong foundational knowledge of the psychology of human performance and how these principles of behavior can be used to engineer and evaluate more effective systems. In the Yearling and Cow years, Engineering Psychology majors enroll in courses designed to teach research and statistical skills, and a series of courses that teach them about the scientific foundation of human behavior. In their Firstie year, they learn to apply this knowledge in the design and evaluation of complex systems.

Engineering Psychology Major Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives

Student Learning Outcome 1

Apply knowledge of human performance to operational readiness and total system design.

- Objective 1: Relate principles of the human nervous and endocrine systems to human performance
- Objective 2: Analyze the characteristics of human perceptional processes in the design of complex systems and work environments
- Objective 3: Apply understanding of human cognitive structure to system design
- Objective 4: Illustrate the limitations of the human body and biomechanics on human performance

Student Learning Outcome 2

Design, conduct, and analyze research in human performance in person/system interaction.

- Objective 1: Apply descriptive and inferential statistics in analyzing data in research projects
- Objective 2: Synthesize scientific literature in deriving an experimental hypothesis
- Objective 3: Design appropriate research methods to answer a scientific question

Student Learning Outcome 3

Evaluate research in human performance and person/system interaction.

- Objective 1: Analyze the validity of research methods used in published studies
- Objective 2: Contrast different empirical approaches to a given human performance research question
- Objective 3: Synthesize different research findings into an structured new whole
- Objective 4: Analyze and existing system and design and alternative and more functional system

Student Learning Outcome 4

Report and defend scientific findings in oral and written format.

- Objective 1: Describe scientific data and theories orally and in writing
- Objective 2: Apply the American Psychological Association's style in preparing written research reports
- Objective 3: Infer extrapolations from research findings to related phenomenon


English Major (ENL1 )

Cadets who major in English refine skills of analysis and creativity and enrich their imaginative capacities by studying the literary and artistic expressions of primarily Anglo-American and, to a lesser extent, global cultures. Exposed to a range of literary genres and modes of cultural expression, English majors graduate with a broader and deeper understanding of the history of ideas and of the ways in which imaginative literature has influenced human behavior and shaped cultural norms. By exploring the full spectrum of human behaviors and circumstances and by laying the groundwork for the cultivation of emotional intelligence and sympathetic imagination, the study of literature equips graduates to engage the world's intellectual, moral, and emotional complexities with insight and the potential for empathy. English majors refine their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in a variety of analytic and creative situations from the textual analysis of poetry and prose to the study of literary history to dramatic performance. The English major with Honors further challenges Cadets to compose a lengthy academic research project in close consultation with a member of the doctoral faculty. With an English major, a Cadet graduates from West Point with the capacity to analyze textual evidence, to account for cultural context and complexity, to communicate precisely, and to imagine creative solutions to difficult problems?attributes that, taken together, constitute excellent preparation for Army service in the twenty-first century and for life more broadly.

Student Learning Outcome 1

English majors will possess a body of knowledge specific to the study of literature.
Cadets will
(1) Understand important conventions of literary scholarship, including critical vocabulary, terminology, and research methods.
(2) Receive a strong foundation in Anglo-American literary history.
(3) Be exposed to significant works of world literature and to global perspectives.

Student Learning Outcome 2

English majors will communicate effectively within the discipline, observing audience, vocabulary, conventions, and methodology.
Cadets will
(1) Learn to recognize the difference between rational and emotional responses to texts.
(2) Speak about literature and culture with depth, nuance, clarity, and precision.
(3) Practice standard skills of literary scholarship, including close reading, analysis in context, and the application of various critical and theoretical lenses.
(4) Write effective academic and creative texts that display an appropriate understanding of subject, audience, and purpose.
(5) Write an extended literary research paper that incorporates secondary sources.

Student Learning Outcome 3

English majors will apply knowledge of literature within and across disciplinary boundaries
Cadets will
(1) Gain a knowledge of literature's historical, social, cultural, and political contexts.
(2) Gain an understanding of the influence of literary models and archetypes on human behavior, especially on the behavior of military professionals; and an awareness of the role of literature within the cultures of other countries and regions.
(3) Draw meaningful connections between literature and other disciplines in discussion and writing.

Student Learning Outcome 4

English majors will demonstrate the capability and the desire to pursue continued intellectual development.
Cadets will
(1) Value the continuing study of literature and other intellectual pursuits.
(2) Be able to work independently and collaboratively in literary studies or other intellectual fields.

Student Learning Outcome 5

English majors will cultivate particular habits of mind exercised through literary study.
Cadets will
(1) Acknowledge and reckon with ambiguity.
(2) Cultivate patience and the faculty of deep attention.
(3) Take intellectual and imaginative risks in creative projects.
(4) Learn to approach problems with resilience, resourcefulness, and invention.


Environmental Engineering (EVE1 )

The environmental engineering program is designed for those cadets who are interested in not only what environmental issues we face today, but how we clean-up our past environmental problems and prevent future ones. Environmental engineers apply engineering principles and knowledge of chemical, biological, and physical processes to improve and maintain the environment for the protection of human health and at-risk ecosystems. This discipline is evolving to face new challenges resulting from rapid growth in human population and technology. Environmental engineers work in multinational teams to develop methods to combat global climate change; find alternative sources of energy; and to recover materials from discarded products. Our program provides you with an active learning experience designed to develop your knowledge of math, science, and engineering science and your ability to use this knowledge to be an active, creative problem solver for complex environmental issues. This skill has been invaluable to our graduates in the Army as they work environmental projects in Iraq and Afghanistan and improve the welfare of their Soldiers. The Environmental Engineering Program is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, https://www.abet.org/.

The Program Educational Objectives of the Environmental Engineering Program identify what our graduates can accomplish within four to seven years after graduation.

Within four to seven years, environmental engineering graduates are expected to attain:

1. leadership responsibility involving
   a. solving complex cross-disciplinary problems
   b. managing resources
   c. minimizing environmental impacts
   d. executing projects within constraints
2. professional skills including
   a. communicating pertinent information to stakeholders
   b. building consensus when presented with diverse viewpoints
   c. evaluating, mitigating and communicating risk
3. self-development through activities including
   a. achieving professional licensure and certification
   b. pursuing continuing education
   c. seeking formal and informal enrichment experiences including community outreach
4. an internalized professional value set that guides you to
   a. uphold Army values (Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, Personal Courage)
   b. analyze an environmental engineering challenge involving conflicting ethical and professional interests to determine an appropriate course of action

The Student Outcomes of the Environmental Engineering Program identify what our graduates can accomplish upon graduation.

Student Learning Outcome 1

an ability to identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles of engineering, science, and mathematics

Student Learning Outcome 2

an ability to apply engineering design to produce solutions that meet specific needs with consideration of public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors

Student Learning Outcome 3

an ability to communicate effectively with a range of audiences

Student Learning Outcome 4

an ability to recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgments, which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts

Student Learning Outcome 5

an ability to function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a collaborative and inclusive environment, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives

Student Learning Outcome 6

an ability to develop and conduct appropriate experimentation, analyze and interpret data, and use engineering judgment to draw conclusions

Student Learning Outcome 7

an ability to acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies


Environmental Science (ESC1 )

Environmental science is a broad, integrative, science-based discipline which focuses on the interrelationships between people and the environment. Environmental scientists conduct investigations to analyze these interrelationships and to identify, abate, or eliminate human-caused pressures on the environment. The ultimate goal of these investigations is to create a sustainable balance between humans and the natural world that minimizes environmental degradation. This major develops expertise into the processes that sustain our environment by expanding upon the West Point core science education by adding studies in the natural sciences such as biology, ecology, geology, and meteorology, and in the integrative studies of environmental decision making and environmental security. This broad academic background is excellent preparation for challenges faced by a military leader who must balance resource and human requirements. The program seeks to (1) enhance your curiosity about natural processes and your ability to study such processes as a scientist and (2) deepen your knowledge of human influences on the environment and foster evaluation of our individual and collective responsibilities as environmental stewards.

The Environmental Science Student Learning Outcomes are designed to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Enhance curiosity about natural processes and one's ability to study such processes as a scientist.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Deepen knowledge of human influences on the environment and foster evaluation of our individual and collective responsibilities as environmental stewards.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Develop one's ability to evaluate the connections between the environment and individual, national, and global security.

Student Learning Outcome 4

lmprove one's facility with the tools of environmental science by developing proficiency in collecting and analyzing lab and field data, deducing patterns, and formulating the next step in an on-going study.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Provide a solid foundation in earth, air, water and life sciences and their interconnections.


Foreign Area Studies: Africa (FSI1 )

This description and outcomes apply to all Foreign Area Studies Majors, not just Foreign Area Studies: Africa.

A Foreign Area Studies Major is offered to Cadets interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary study of Africa, East Asia, Eurasia, Europe, Latin America, or the Middle East. Cadets choosing one of these area programs will study the peoples, societies, languages, cultures, geography, history, foreign relations, politics, and economics of a particular region. Cadets will have the opportunity to study in depth the factors that frequently determine national objectives and influence the formulation of governmental policy.

Student Learning Outcome 1

Foreign Area Studies Majors will be proficient in their respective languages.
Cadets will be able to
(1) Demonstrate foreign language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
(2) Combine linguistic skills and critical thinking to perform research and conduct analysis.
(3) Deliver research findings to diverse audiences.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Foreign Area Studies Majors will develop the cultural competence needed to interact effectively with members of the target community.
Cadets will be able to
(1) Describe and explain crucial figures and events in the history of the target region.
(2) Discuss significant recent cultural developments.
(3) Analyze contemporary issues, guided by knowledge of the region's history.
(4) Account for limitations in existing conceptual frameworks as applied to cultural studies.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Foreign Area Studies Majors will be knowledgeable of the regional dynamics of LX-speaking countries.
Cadets will be able to
(1) Describe the target region's armed forces.
(2) Analyze the impact of the physical and human geography on contemporary society.
(3) Apply concepts of cross-cultural inquiry to evaluate regional change.
(4) Identify and explain sources of intercultural conflicts.
(5) Summarize US policies related to the LX-speaking region.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Foreign Area Studies Majors will be critical thinkers.
Cadets will be able to
(1) Integrate acquired knowledge in area studies and foreign languages with other humanities and social sciences disciplines.
(2) Transfer language proficiency and intercultural capabilities to the study of and engagement with other language communities.
(3) Navigate successfully the challenges of living in another culture.


Foreign Language: Arabic (FLA1 )

This description and outcomes apply to all foreign language majors and dual language majors, not just Foreign Language: Arabic

The ability to understand and speak a foreign language is a window into the thinking and values of another people. Cadets majoring in foreign languages develop operational proficiency in the foreign language and attain an informed understanding of the culture and regional dynamics of the country or countries where the language is used. These capabilities are invaluable assets to future officers in a globally committed US Army. Majors may focus on the study of a single language: Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Portuguese, Russian or Spanish; or they may pursue the Dual Foreign Language Major by combining studies of any two of the seven languages or Persian. Advanced level study in all languages includes courses in literature, civilization, military readings, and media.

Student Learning Outcome 1

Foreign Language Majors will be proficient in their respective languages.
Cadets will be able to
(1) Comprehend and analyze language-based cultural products.
(2) Read critically and analyze texts in the target language.
(3) Communicate effectively using culturally appropriate forms in the target language.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Foreign Language Majors will develop the cultural competence needed to interact effectively with members of the target community.
Cadets will be able to
(1) Describe and explain crucial figures and events in the history of the target region.
(2) Discuss significant recent cultural developments.
(3) Analyze contemporary issues, guided by knowledge of the region's history.
(4) Account for limitations in existing conceptual frameworks as applied to cultural studies.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Foreign Language Majors will be knowledgeable of the regional dynamics of LX-speaking countries.
Cadets will be able to
(1) Describe the target region's armed forces.
(2) State attitudes and beliefs of the LX-speaking population about the culture/policies of the US.
(3) Summarize US policies related to the LX-speaking region.
(4) Identify and explain sources of intercultural conflicts.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Foreign Language Majors will be critical thinkers.
Cadets will be able to
(1) Combine linguistic skills and critical thinking to perform research, conduct analysis, and deliver findings to diverse audiences.
(2) Integrate acquired knowledge in foreign language studies with other humanities and social sciences disciplines.
(3) Transfer language proficiency and intercultural capabilities to the study of and engagement with other language communities.
(4) Recognize the inherent challenges of translation and literary analysis.
(5) Navigate successfully the challenges of living in another culture.


Geography: Human (GEH0 )

Geography: Human (GEH0), Human-Environment (GEE0), Physical (GEP0)

This description and outcomes apply to all three tracks within the Geography major.

Geography is the study of people, places, and the environment and is an ideal major for Cadets interested in the outdoors, global cultures, and the natural world. More specifically, Geographers examine spatial patterns, geographic processes, and natural and human landscapes. Geography is a broad, integrating discipline with methodologies and analytical foundations that span engineering, science, and the humanities. Majoring in geography requires persistent curiosity and inquiry into human-land-environment interactions including an examination of how natural systems function, how physical landscapes evolve, how human populations adapt, and how humans shape the environment. Three tracks allow Cadets to explore geography through the major subfields of the discipline: Human Geography, Physical Geography, or Human-Environment Interaction. The Human Geography track provides a social science perspective that enables Cadets to explore cultural diversity, population trends, and political, economic, and social systems from a global and regional perspective. The Physical Geography track falls within the natural sciences and allows Cadets to develop a greater depth of knowledge on the physical processes that shape the Earth. The Human-Environment Geography track emphasizes the interaction between humans and their environment by delineating the regional challenges inherent with environmental change and natural hazards, identifying anthropogenic pressures on natural resources and the role these resources play in economic wellbeing, and understanding the environments role in regional instability. The major integrates the use of geographic skills such as computer cartography, remote sensing, and geographic information systems. Geography is the ideal discipline for an Army officer in a changing world.

Graduates with a major in Geography should be able to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Describe the development of geography and discuss the discipline's unique place within the social and natural sciences.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Explain how geography connects both physical and human geographic principles in order to understand the interactions between people and the natural environment.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Explain the fundamental concepts (place, space, scale, location, region, landscape) and theories that underlie modern thinking in geography.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Explain the basic physical geography processes that affect human patterns & systems on the earth's surface.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Demonstrate a basic competence in a technical skill of value to geographers, such as foreign language, research methodologies, or geospatial technologies.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Use geospatial information sciences to inform understanding of geographic issues.

Student Learning Outcome 7

Identify global cultural patterns and processes and summarize the regional geography of at least one world realm.

Student Learning Outcome 8

Synthesize and apply knowledge of geography to better understand real world issues, including, but not limited to, topics of concern to the Army.

Student Learning Outcome 9

Conduct basic geographic research, analyze the findings, and professionally communicate the results orally and in writing.


Geospatial Information Science (GIS1 )

Fundamental to understanding our environment and the geography of the earth is our ability to locate, measure, and quantify geographic phenomena. The discipline of Geospatial Information Science is concerned with the measurement of the earth and all that is on it, natural and man-made. Cadets develop expertise in subjects ranging from traditional methods of land surveying to satellite imaging and positioning systems. The Geospatial Information Science curriculum builds on a firm math science, and geography foundation with specialized courses in land surveying, cartography, photogrammetry, remote sensing, and geographic information systems. Both the civil and military sectors of our society are placing an ever-increasing reliance on the ability to build and query GIS to support a myriad of social/economic and engineering issues. The cadet at the USMA has a rare opportunity to pursue an integrated field of study that is commonly spread over several separate disciplines at other institutions. This major has applicability for the future military officer regardless of branch. Cadets majoring in GIS receive a 3Y (Space Activities) Skill Identifier on their official military record. Additionally, cadets who branch Engineers will qualify for the Geospatial Engineer Officer Identifier. Cadets majoring in GIS also qualify for the United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundations Geospatial Intelligence Certificate.

GIS Major Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives

Student Learning Outcome 1

Graduates will understand the fundamentals of geospatial data.
a. Graduates will have an understanding of datums.
b. Graduates will have an understanding of map projections.
c. Graduates will have an understanding of map coordinate systems.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Graduates will be able to acquire geospatial data.
a. Graduates will be able to plan a geospatial data collection or acquisition.
b. Graduates will be familiar with the sources of geospatial data.
c. Graduates will be able to collect geospatial data using traditional surveying techniques.
d. Graduates will be able to collect geospatial data using GPS technologies.
e. Graduates will be able to convert geospatial data to effectively meet project requirements.
f. Graduates will be able to assess the quality of geospatial data.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Graduates will be able to effectively manage geospatial data.
a. Graduates will be able to design a geospatial database that meets user requirements.
b. Graduates will be able to build a geospatial database based upon design specifications.
c. Graduates will be able to critically assess the utility of a geospatial database.
d. Graduates will be able to modify the design and content of a geospatial database as necessary.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Graduates will be able to conduct geospatial analysis.
a. Graduates will be able to generate digital elevation models.
b. Graduates will be able to extract thematic data layers from remotely sensed imagery.
c. Graduates will be able to conduct geospatial queries.
d. Graduates will be able to take measurements of geospatial features.
e. Graduates will be able to conduct basic geospatial analytical operations and methods.
f. Graduates will be able to analyze geospatial surfaces.
g. Graduates will be able to conduct basic network analysis.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Graduates will be able to effectively communicate with geospatial information.
a. Graduates will understand and be able to use the principles of cartographic design.
b. Graduates will be able to effectively employ geo-visualization techniques.
c. Graduates will be able to communicate geospatial information in a non-graphic manner such as briefings and reports.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Graduates will understand the profession and responsibilities of the discipline.
a. Graduates will have an understanding of legal, ethical, and security aspects of geospatial data and information.
b. Graduates will be familiar with geospatial organizations with an emphasis on the Department of Defense and the U. S. Army.


History Major: International (HNT2 )

This description and the outcomes apply to all history majors, not just History: International.

As Army officers, West Point graduates will perform a broad spectrum of missions vitally important to our nation's security and interests. They must be intellectually and professionally prepared to face these challenges in an uncertain and dangerous world inhabited by peoples of different languages, religions, and cultures. The Department of History contributes to cadets' intellectual and professional development by imparting historical knowledge, an appreciation of history, and critical thinking and communication skills.

Broad historical knowledge is central to developing informed citizens and soldiers. It helps cadets place their service as future Army officers in the context of U.S., Western, and world history. Additionally, it provides the cultural and historical literacy necessary for officers to serve effectively wherever in the world they may find themselves. This is particularly true in the case of counterinsurgency warfare, where victory depends on achieving legitimacy in the eyes of the indigenous population.

Officers with an appreciation of history recognize that every situation is historically unique. They understand that history is of value not in divining answers about the future but in asking the right questions. History is the means of putting human activities and ideas in context, avoiding false analogies, lending a sense of scope and scale, assessing moral implications, anticipating unintended consequences, and judging the feasibility and suitability of possible courses of action. Consulting history on these issues helps officers arrive at thoughtful, appropriate, and humane solutions to the problems they will face in their careers.

Officers who are critical thinkers challenge accepted wisdom in the search for truth and justice. They are open-minded and able to make independent and informed decisions. They reject simplistic answers that suggest the existence of a black-and- white world; rather, they accept the ambiguity associated with most human endeavors and seek the best solution rather than a single "correct" one. The study of history encourages critical thinking by requiring cadets to:

• formulate critical questions;
• conduct research by gathering and prioritizing information; analyze information within the broad context in which it appears; interpret and synthesize information;
• derive reasoned, evidence-based conclusions;
• assess and adjust their conclusions as conditions change or new information becomes available.

Finally, officers must be able to communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, to influence others. It is of no use to know and appreciate history and to be able to think critically if the officer is incapable of communicating his or her thoughts. The Department of History develops cadets' communication skills through frequent practice in and out of the classroom. Our principal evaluative concern is the content of the message, but we also devote great energy to enabling cadets to communicate with grammatical correctness, stylistic grace, and acceptable format. Cadets may pursue a major in one of three fields: American History, International History, or Military History. Each offers flexibility, permitting cadets to develop a foundation of historical perspective as well as pursue specialized studies in regional areas, languages, or other disciplines.

Student Learning Outcome 1

Communicate effectively in speaking and writing.
1. Demonstrate ability to read and understand information and arguments.
2. Demonstrate ability to understand and respond in verbal debate and discussion.
3. Convey ideas clearly, using conventions of format, structure, voice, tone, and level of formality appropriate to the rhetorical situation and audience in an organized way both orally and in writing.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Understand how individuals, organizations, cultures, and societies behaved and met challenges in the past.
1. Identify and analyze the development of different cultures and civilizations and understand the historical foundations of their ethical development.
2. Analyze the interactions of political, social, economic, ethical, military, and cultural components in the development of civilizations.
3. Analyze and evaluate the role of historical insight in informing the decisions of political and military leaders.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Understand the complexity and ambiguity of change over time. Evaluate complex evidence critically and establish appropriate links between cause and effect.
1. Use historical evidence to assess given situations both preceding and following historical change and describe the limits of that change, identify and analyze ethical components of historical events, identify conflicting points of view, analyze conflicting or ambiguous historical perspectives and evidence, establish causal relationships between facts, and identify points of tension.
2. Apply historical knowledge, critical thinking and research skills to inform their own professional decision-making.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Demonstrate critical thinking and research skills:
1. Engage in independent research.
2. Identify the essential aspects of historical situations and ask relevant questions.
3. Reflect on and evaluate evidence and sources, question assumptions, synthesize and draw informed conclusions on the basis of critical analysis.
4. Employ historical thinking and analysis to explain historical patterns, developments and events.
5. Analyze various approaches to historical research and different historical frameworks.


Information Technology (ITE1 )

The Information Technology (IT) program builds on the USMA Academic Program Goal for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics: "Graduates apply science, technology, engineering, and mathematics concepts and processes to solve complex problems." Information technologists play a critical role in the specification, design, acquisition, deployment, and management of information technologies for the Army and society. They address the development and evolution of IT infrastructure and systems in organizations. In the Army, information technologists design, install, and modify information systems and networks in tactical and strategic environments.

The Information Technology Major

The primary goal of the IT major is to teach cadets to systematically identify critical information requirements and then design, build, and test complex information systems from hardware and software components to meet individual client and Army organizational needs. The Information Technology program is accredited by the Computing Accreditation Commission (CAC) of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), http://www.abet.org.

The Information Technology Program objectives are that, five to seven years after graduation, cadets who major in Information Technology will have been successful Army officers who have:

• Identified and exploited opportunities to improve Army operations by applying best practices in information technology.
• Effectively communicated information technology to a range of audiences.
• Grown professionally through self-study, continuing education, and professional development.

The Information Technology Program enables students to attain, by the time of graduation:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Analyze a complex computing problem and to apply principles of computing and other relevant disciplines to identify solutions.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Design, implement, and evaluate a computing-based solution to meet a given set of computing requirements in the context of the program's discipline.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Communicate effectively in a variety of professional contexts.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Recognize professional responsibilities and make informed judgments in computing practice based on legal and ethical principles.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Function effectively as a member or leader of a team engaged in activities appropriate to the program's discipline.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Identify and analyze user needs and to take them into account in the selection, creation, integration, evaluation, and administration of computing-based systems.


Interdisciplinary Science - Astronautics Track (ISA0 )

This description and outcomes apply to all tracks of the Interdisciplinary Science major, not just Interdisciplinary Science - Astronautics Track.

The program in Interdisciplinary Science consists of study selected from the disciplines of physics, chemistry, life sciences, and astronautics. This major offers cadets an opportunity to acquire a comprehensive grasp of their physical environment and, more importantly, an understanding of human thought in seeking out successful methods of increasing our insight and knowledge. This area of inquiry will enable cadets to analyze and understand future developments in our society as they relate to such critical issues as medical and health science research, the energy crisis, the nuclear power controversy, the space program, and the development of sophisticated weapon systems. The program provides cadets with a sound basis for graduate study not only in basic sciences but also in applied sciences, engineering, medicine or life science. Additionally, the program prepares cadets for entry into the majority of the technically oriented officer career branches and several of the functional areas.

Interdisciplinary Science Major Student Learning Outcomes

Student Learning Outcome 1

Cadets can apply disciplinary tools, methods of inquiry, and theoretical approaches from multiple scientific disciplines to model natural systems, solve problems, and apply solutions to hypothetical and real world situations.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Cadets can apply interdisciplinary scientific principles to formulate and test hypotheses in an experimental setting.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Cadets can complete academic assignments and perform research using accepted ethical and scientific standards

Student Learning Outcome 4

Cadets can communicate logical solutions to scientific and technical problems in oral or written form that is easily comprehended by superiors, peers and subordinates.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Cadets are prepared for graduate education in technical disciplines.


Kinesiology (KIN1 )

Kinesiology is the scientific study of human movement and is generally divided into the physiological, psychological, and mechanical aspects of movement. The physiological aspects of kinesiology encompass the study of the short-term responses and long-term adaptations of organisms and systems to the challenge of exercise, physical activity, or movement. From a neuromuscular perspective, kinesiology relates to how humans learn and control movements. The psychological aspects of kinesiology relate to the effects of human behavior on physical activity levels and performance. The mechanical aspects of kinesiology encompass the biodynamics of human movements as they relate to exercise and human performance.

Kinesiology is a broad, interdisciplinary field of study that includes diverse specialties such as exercise physiology, biomechanics, nutrition, exercise psychology, and motor control. Areas of inquiry range in scope from the study of the molecular response of cells to the response and adaptation of the whole body. The kinesiology major encompasses a wide spectrum of performance-related issues involving muscular and cardiovascular physiology, energy balance, exercise adherence, skill acquisition, and fitness testing and prescription.

Upon completion, students will be able to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Identify the anatomical structures that help determine physical competency and human movement

Student Learning Outcome 2

Describe the principles of human physical development and adaptation

Student Learning Outcome 3

Describe the musculoskeletal principles of work capacity

Student Learning Outcome 4

Identify the principles of the mechanics of human movement

Student Learning Outcome 5

Describe the principles of exercise psychology and their application to fitness

Student Learning Outcome 6

Apply the principles of fitness assessment and exercise prescription

Student Learning Outcome 7

Describe the nutritional concepts supporting the energy demands of physical training


Law and Legal Studies (LLS2 )

Law is the study of the means of maintaining social order, balancing individual interests against the interest of society, resolving disputes, and addressing social concerns. The study of law sharpens analytical and problem-solving abilities while developing an appreciation of law as a basic foundation of society. A Law and Legal Studies major will equip cadets with the means to understand conflicting issues, to analyze problems, and then to choose the most appropriate solution. The legal system major is not intended to train lawyers. Rather, it will prepare cadets for success in command or in any other position in which effective analytical, problem solving, and communications skills are essential. From this understanding cadets can expand their breadth of experience and gain insight into current social problems or future challenges. A Legal System major will enhance the ability to think critically, conduct research, and persuasively express oneself orally and in writing. Law provides an excellent preparation for subsequent graduate study in public policy and administration, politics, government, business management, and international relations.

Law and Legal Studies Major Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives

Student Learning Outcome 1

Cadets understand how individuals and organizations use and react to law in the pursuit of social, political, and economic goals
a. Cadets will learn how to read and understand primary sources of American. foreign, and international law, including constitutions, codes, statutes, cases, regulations, and treaties.
b. Cadets will learn to analyze critically legal commentaries. including news reports. editorials. commentaries. documents. and law review articles.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Cadets communicate in correct and appropriate legal language when writing and speaking to evince clear and critical thinking.
a. Cadets will develop the oral and written skills to communicate concisely, persuasively, and logically to support or oppose a given decision or course of action.
b. Cadets will learn to apply legal texts and principles when analyzing specific problems and cases in order to reach legally and logically supportable conclusions and decisions.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Cadets identify the relationship between legal, ethical, and moral issues, and apply the law properly in decision-making. Cadets will be able to distinguish between the ethical. moral. policy. and legal components of social. political. and economic issues.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Cadets know how law affects and reflects diverse groups within American society to shape behavior, achievement, and ideas. Cadets will acquire a basic understanding of the substantive and procedural rules of law that underpin the American Legal System.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Cadets know how law is understood and applied in diverse global societies and cultures. Cadets will understand and internalize the values inherent in the principle of the rule of law as it is applied. or not applied. in a variety of cultures and circumstances.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Cadets think and act logically and creatively when acting within the framework and constraints of legal requirements. Students will acquire the legal knowledge and tools to function effectively as a military professional at all levels.


Life Science (LSC1 )

The Life Science Major focuses on the evolution, structure, and processes of living organisms. Advances in molecular biology and biotechnology are providing significant improvements in the quality of our lives even as they alter the fundamental way we view life itself. Evolution, genetic engineering, recombinant DNA research, medical treatment, ecology, and emerging diseases are just a few of today's research areas under the life sciences heading. The Life Science Major includes courses that give cadets an in-depth understanding of biology which when combined with math, chemistry and physics can be applied to Army needs. The major focuses on broader understanding of biology and biotechnology. In addition to the core course requirements and three-course engineering sequence (any of the sequences offered) cadets will complete an integrative experience (CH479 Methods and Applications of Biotechnology). This course examines the social, economic, political, ethical, and technological aspects of biotechnology. The Life Science Major includes all the courses needed for cadets pursuing the Medical School Option as well as other post-graduate choices.

Applications of the life sciences involve all facets of our lives and are very important to our careers as military officers. A better understanding of biotechnology will allow us to use biosensors to detect weapons of bioterrorism. Biomolecular engineering will make possible the use of cells to manufacture novel biomaterials with specific properties and functions. Biotechnology and biomedical engineering will improve the medical treatment of battlefield casualties. The most important "system" in the future Army will continue to be the human soldier. Because the soldier is a biological system, biotechnology offers unique potential for enhancing the performance of this most complex, critical, and costly of the Army's systems.

Graduates who complete a Life Science Major will be able to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Understand and apply the Scientific Method.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Gather, analyze, organize, and present scientific information.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Understand the basic principles of life science and chemistry, and their applications to the Army and Society.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Understand and apply basic instrumental methods of biological and chemical analysis.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Recognize the structure and understand the functions of biomolecules.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Know the structures and functions of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

Student Learning Outcome 7

Understand the principles of bioenergetics and metabolism.

Student Learning Outcome 8

Understand the structure-function relationships at all levels of organization of living organisms.

Student Learning Outcome 9

Understand evolutionary biology and its importance.

Student Learning Outcome 10

Understand ecology (organization, diversity, and interdependence of living organisms).


Management (MNG0 )

Management is one of four majors available through the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership. Management is arguably one of the most applicable majors for future Army officers. Graduates gain specialized skills and knowledge related to managing both human and physical resources, making them uniquely prepared to understand and ultimately lead people. The Management Major in the D/BS&L equips young officers with the skills necessary to manage and lead in today's complex Army. Our majors are designed to provide students with the ability to understand, analyze, and improve any organization. The skills student develop are extremely important for Army officers as well as future community leaders. Depending on their focus, Management Majors study traditional business topics such as accounting, finance, human resource management, marketing, production & operations, information systems, strategy, operations research, systems engineering and other aspects of management.

The Management major provides cadets a choice of three concentrations:

The Business Management concentration is focused on applying knowledge of management to improve the development, performance, and well-being of individuals (Soldiers) and their organizations. Management emphasizes forecasting, planning and control, allocating resources, the appraisal of competition, and implementation strategies.

The Social Enterprise Management concentration is focused on applying skills and tools to manage and improve organizations effectively. This concentration examines organizational management efforts through a Social Enterprise lens, so that cadets gain mastery in their understanding of the science of managing in this challenging context. Additionally, cadets will learn how to influence organizational member behavior to optimize performance. It explores both interpersonal and group behavior and how these dynamics influence an organization's structure, performance and mission accomplishment.

The Public Administration Concentration is focused on providing skills and insights that are useful to future Army Officers. Specifically, the concentration combines elements of economic and political analysis in order to understand the interactions between market and political processes (political economy) and the positive and normative aspects of government activity (public policy and management).

Management Major Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Technological Application: Graduates understand and apply information technology concepts to acquire, manage, communicate and defend information, solve problems and adapt to technological change.

a. Students demonstrate the ability to effectively use information technology to solve management problems and make effective management decisions.

b. Students are required to demonstrate proficiency in application programs such as Microsoft Office.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Cultural and Social Awareness: Graduates draw from culture and history to understand human behavior, achievement and ideas in a global context.

a. Students will demonstrate an ability to evaluate the global market potential for products as well as the most appropriate entry strategy for those products.
b. Students will demonstrate an understanding of cultural differences among various regions in the global business community and an ability to apply this understanding to management problems.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Graduates understand patterns of human behavior, particularly how individuals, organizations and societies pursue social, political and economic goals.

a. Students will demonstrate the ability to understand and apply theories of individual and group behavior.
b. Students will complete coursework in psychology, economics and leadership prior to/concurrent with beginning coursework in management.
c. Students will have adopted a set of effective individual, group and organizational leadership skills and abilities and be able to demonstrate self-awareness of their own leadership style.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking: Graduates understand the full range of management concepts and are capable of applying change management, human resource management, marketing, leadership, financial, accounting, production management and strategic modes of thought to management problems.

a. Students will satisfactorily complete courses in introduction to management, human resources management, marketing, finance, accounting, international management, leadership of org change and strategic management.
b. Students will be able to create and implement effective strategies for leading or managing change.
c. Students will complete a capstone project in the strategic management course that demonstrates their ability to integrate management knowledge across fields.
d. Students will leverage concentration specific knowledge to develop management skills aimed at successfully managing in either the business management, social enterprise, or public admin arenas.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Communication: Graduates listen, read, speak and write effectively.

a. Students will demonstrate the ability to summarize complex lectures.
b. Students demonstrate the ability to summarize and discuss complex readings in the management literature.
c. Students demonstrate effective speaking skills and are capable of producing a professional quality presentation using style, vocabulary and organization that is appropriate to the audience.
d. Students develop effective writing skills necessary to produce clear, comprehensive and persuasive analysis.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Moral and Ethical Reasoning: Graduates recognize moral issues and apply ethical considerations in decision making.

a. Students will be able to recognize and analyze ethical problems, work through the ethical decision-making process and defend a solution.
b. Students will identify the activities/issues in leadership that may present ethical challenges and will articulate the consequences associated with unethical behavior.

Student Learning Outcome 7

Team Dynamics: Graduates demonstrate the ability to manage teams effectively.

a. Students will work on team projects and evaluate other team members' work in the majority of required courses in the management major.
b. Students develop and implement leader actions and integrate management functions that maximize group/team effectiveness and organizational outcomes.
c. Students use their understanding of group processes to make themselves and members of their teams more cooperative and productive.

Student Learning Outcome 8

Contribution: Graduates understand how the management major contributes to their effectiveness as Army officers.

a. Student projects and discussions connect course material to their role as an Army Officer.
b. Student AIADs and trip sections experiences are linked to their role as an Army Officer through discussion and summary papers.
c. Lesson objectives are linked to the management of military organizations.


Mathematical Sciences (MSC1 )

The mathematical sciences embody those areas of mathematics which have strong interdependence with other disciplines. Their purpose is to clarify concepts and describe scientific phenomena through symbolic language and the rules for its use. Its scope spans the total breadth of knowledge that is capable of being quantified. The full process of the mathematical sciences has expanded from their historical ties with the physical sciences to now include areas such as: the biological, sociological, behavioral, and computer sciences; operations research; and all engineering fields. The Department of Mathematical Sciences offers abundant opportunities for study in a broad range of mathematical subjects. Courses such as differential equations, algebra, mathematical modeling, analysis, numerical computation, statistics, and linear optimization provide a sound mathematical foundation in the science and engineering fields. In addition, follow-on courses such as algebra, analysis, combinatorics, and advanced individual study provide both depth in understanding the foundations of mathematical theory, as well as opportunity for study and research in a selected subject. Whenever possible, the use of technology is emphasized to extend the knowledge required for the consideration of realistic and challenging problems found in today's world. Cadets who major in Mathematical Sciences are required to take a seven-course core mathematics sequence, a statistics elective, an integrative experience course designed to explore real world problems pulled from many disciplines, and two additional mathematics electives for a total of eleven courses in the major. Mathematical Sciences majors are also required to take a three-course engineering sequence of their choice. Cadets will take MA205 - Calculus II as their STEM Depth choice in the core curriculum unless it is validated. Further, cadets will take a three-course Complementary Support sequence that provides breadth to their mathematical understanding (one of the three courses must be IT305 - Theory and Practice of Military IT Systems). Thus, Mathematical Sciences majors will take 41 courses while successfully completing their major and core curriculum requirements. The Mathematical Sciences with Honors major requires two semesters of directed research under senior faculty advisement that replaces the one semester research requirement, and culminates in a written thesis and presentation during the second semester. In order to receive the Mathematical Science with Honors Major, cadets will need to attain an APSC of at least 3.0 in the core curriculum and an APSC of at least 3.5 in the major curriculum.

Graduates who complete a Mathematical Sciences major will be able to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Demonstrate competence in modeling physical, informational, and social phenomena by
a. Identifying and articulating assumptions, metrics and constraints
b. Applying appropriate solutions techniques
c. Interpreting results within the appropriate context

Student Learning Outcome 2

Argue and inquire soundly and rigorously; become independent questioners and learners

Student Learning Outcome 3

Achieve mathematical proficiency in breadth and depth
a. Understand and apply theorems and algorithms
b. Understand and apply analytical methods
c. Understand and apply numerical methods
d. Understand and apply graphical methods
e. Understand discrete and continuous structures and processes

Student Learning Outcome 4

Communicate mathematics, both orally and in writing

Student Learning Outcome 5

Use technology to model, visualize, and solve complex problems

Student Learning Outcome 6

Develop attitudes - habits of mind
a. Creative and curious
b. Experimental disposition
c. Critical thinking and reasoning
d. Commitment to life-long learning

Student Learning Outcome 7

Understand the role of mathematical sciences (in our world) by analyzing applied problems through disciplinary, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary approaches


Mechanical Engineering (MEN1 )

Mechanical Engineering is one of the broadest and most diverse of the engineering fields. It deals with devices and systems for energy conversion, for material transport and for control of motion and forces. A sampling of the topics addressed by the discipline include air, ground, and sea vehicles; power plants; control systems; machinery; machine tools; conventional and nuclear-powered power production facilities; biomedical devices; space vehicles; pollution control; new energy sources; energy conversion; transportation systems; and, military weapons systems. These modern weapons systems are used as vehicles of instruction in many of the courses, making mechanical engineering particularly appropriate for those considering service in most branches of the Army as well as specialties such as engineers, aviation, research and development, project management and logistics. The Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering offers a major in Mechanical Engineering that is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org. All cadets experience the same core mechanical engineering program and choose three electives for depth of study. The goal of the Mechanical Engineering program is to provide high quality instruction in a positive learning environment leading to a degree recognized as being among the best in the nation. The Mechanical Engineering program stresses engineering fundamentals so that graduates are well equipped to understand complex technical problems in a rapidly changing, technology-intensive Army. Once completed, the graduate is well-prepared to excel as an officer and an engineer. The practice-oriented degree is strengthened by the complete integration of design and laboratory experience throughout the curriculum.

To meet this goal, the Program Educational Objectives of the Mechanical Engineering program are:

Within a few years after graduation, mechanical engineering majors are expected to attain:

1.   multiple positions of responsibility in which they:
   a. drive outcomes
   b. inform and influence others
   c. build teams

2. personal and professional growth through formal and informal learning opportunities while being a role model to inspire others

3. experience in providing engineering expertise to the Army and Nation to design solutions and innovate for winning in a complex world

To achieve these Program Educational Objectives, cadets who qualify for graduation with a mechanical engineering major from USMA will demonstrate the following Mechanical Engineering Student Outcomes:

Student Learning Outcome 1

an ability to identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles of engineering, science, and mathematics

Student Learning Outcome 2

an ability to apply engineering design to produce solutions that meet specified needs with consideration of public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors

Student Learning Outcome 3

an ability to communicate effectively with a range of audiences

Student Learning Outcome 4

an ability to recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgments, which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts

Student Learning Outcome 5

an ability to function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a collaborative and inclusive environment, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives

Student Learning Outcome 6

an ability to develop and conduct appropriate experimentation, analyze and interpret data, and use engineering judgment to draw conclusions

Student Learning Outcome 7

an ability to acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies


Nuclear Engineering (NEN1 )

Nuclear engineering makes practical use of the energy that is released by the atomic nucleus. Applications extend into the fields of electric power, medicine, nuclear weapons, and nuclear weapons effects. At USMA the vehicle for learning the concepts of the field is the commercial nuclear power plant. The approach is interdisciplinary; it draws widely upon mathematics, physics, and mechanics, with special emphasis on applied physics and the thermal-hydraulic aspects of mechanical engineering. The management of engineering is also addressed through decision analysis and economic analysis. The Nuclear Engineering major is designed to provide depth of knowledge in the application of nuclear energy to include power production, radiation health physics, nuclear weapons, and weapons effects. The major is taught through multiple departments and includes interdisciplinary electives from physics, mathematics, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, and nuclear engineering. The Nuclear Engineering student will gain a broad background for further study in graduate school and Army assignments requiring expertise in mechanical engineering, applied radiation physics, nuclear weapons and weapons effects, or any of a variety of related topics. The Nuclear Engineering program is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org.

The Nuclear Engineering Program Educational Objectives are broad statements that describe what graduates are expected to attain within a few years after graduation. Program educational objectives are based on the needs of the Nuclear Engineering Program's constituencies.

- As Army leaders, graduates solve complex, multi-disciplinary problems for the Army and the Nation.
- Graduates demonstrate the necessary leadership and teamwork skills to work in multi-disciplinary team environments.
- Graduates are prepared to provide appropriate nuclear and radiological engineering expertise to the Army.
- Graduates communicate effectively, orally and in writing.
- Graduates continue to grow intellectually and professionally -- as Army officers and as engineers.

To achieve these Program Educational Objectives, cadets must attain or possess at graduation:

Student Learning Outcome 1

an ability to identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles of engineering, science, and mathematics

Student Learning Outcome 2

an ability to apply engineering design to produce solutions that meet specified needs with consideration of public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors

Student Learning Outcome 3

an ability to communicate effectively with a range of audiences

Student Learning Outcome 4

an ability to recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgments, which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts

Student Learning Outcome 5

an ability to function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a collaborative and inclusive environment, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives

Student Learning Outcome 6

an ability to develop and conduct appropriate experimentation, analyze and interpret data, and use engineering judgment to draw conclusions

Student Learning Outcome 7

an ability to acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies


Operations Research (ORE1 )

Operations Research (OR) is a specific approach to decision making with a focus on how best to design and operate systems, usually under conditions requiring the allocation of scarce resources. However, whether one means the term to be a professional designation, a label for a body of methods, or an approach to problem solving, OR is inextricably linked to the direction and management of large systems for people, machines, materials, and money in government, industry, business, and defense. Since its inception during WWII, the interdisciplinary field of OR has set itself apart as an applied mathematical science and engineering discipline with a diverse range of applications. Because of the increased demand for OR analysis within the Army, the OR specialty (FA49) continues to enjoy steady growth in membership, and is associated with superb educational and promotion opportunities throughout an officer's military career. West Point remains the single largest source of FA49 officers for the Army. Graduates of the OR program at USMA are well prepared to tackle some of the Army's most challenging problems and to pursue graduate study in support of the FA49 career field. Cadets who major in Operations Research are required to take a six-course core sequence, a simulation elective, and three additional discipline electives for a total of ten courses in the major. Operations Research majors are also required to take a three-course Systems Engineering sequence in order to create the necessary integration between the Math and Systems Engineering departments. Cadets will take MA205 - Calculus II as their STEM Depth choice in the core curriculum unless it is validated. Cadets will take a three-course Complementary Support Course sequence that provides breadth to their analytical understanding while incorporating an integrative experience through a year-long capstone project designed to explore real world problems from multiple disciplines. Further, IT305 - Theory and Practice of Military IT Systems is required for Operations Research majors as a Complementary Support Course (CSC). Thus, Operations Research majors will take 40 courses while successfully completing their major and core curriculum requirements. The Operations Research with Honors major requires a two-course sequence that requires two semesters of directed research under senior faculty advisement and culminates in a written thesis and presentation during the second semester. In order to receive the Operations Research with Honors Major, cadets will need to attain an APSC of at least 3.0 in the core curriculum and an APSC of at least 3.5 in the major curriculum.

Graduates who complete an Operations Research major will be able to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Demonstrate competence in modeling physical, informational, and social phenomena by:
a. Identifying and articulating assumptions, metrics, and constraints
b. Applying appropriate solution techniques
c. Interpreting results within the appropriate context

Student Learning Outcome 2

Argue and inquire soundly and rigorously; become independent questioners and learners

Student Learning Outcome 3

Achieve proficiency in Operations Research - in breadth and depth:
a. Understand and apply probabilistic and statistical models and methods
b. Understand and apply simulation methods
c. Understand and apply optimization methods

Student Learning Outcome 4

Communicate effectively - orally and in writing

Student Learning Outcome 5

Use technology to model, visualize, and solve complex problems

Student Learning Outcome 6

Develop attitudes - habits of mind
a. Creative and curious
b. Experimental disposition
c. Critical thinking and reasoning
d. Commitment to life-long learning

Student Learning Outcome 7

Understand the role of operations research in interdisciplinary problem solving


Philosophy Major (PYL1 )

The scope of Philosophy is much wider than the areas of Ethics and Just War theory studied in PY201. Besides Ethics, Philosophy investigates the very nature of human knowledge; the relationship between mind and matter; and fundamental principles of the kind that underlie religion, science, and politics. The study of Philosophy also has a significant cultural dimension. It challenges us to understand attitudes, beliefs and arguments from societies more or less remote from our own: the Greek and Roman world; the classical age of Asian thought; 17th-century European thought in its adjustment to modern science; and American contributions to our understanding of philosophical method. Doing Philosophy is a superior example of Critical Thinking at work, thanks to the high value it places in all its courses on systematic investigation, conceptual analysis, and cogent reasoning. West Point's Philosophy major is designed to ensure breadth and to encourage depth. It also provides opportunities to pursue further study in the ethics of war. The intellectual skills and experience that DEP's Philosophy major fosters are beneficial to the Army. The future officer in whom these skills take root will be an asset to any branch.

Cadets who major in Philosophy will be able to: analyze and construct philosophical arguments; show competency in logic and other core areas of philosophy; be familiar with major historical areas, figures, and problems of philosophy; understand philosophical ideas within their historical and cultural contexts; think and write in a rigorous and precise manner; use their critical thinking skills to provide original or innovative approaches to philosophical problems; apply philosophical methods in a variety of contexts at the personal and social levels; apply philosophical methods across disciplinary boundaries to a broad range of issues in the modern world.

Student Learning Outcome 1

Philosophy majors will be able to analyze and construct philosophical arguments, advancing reasoned solutions for problems.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Philosophy majors will have the ability to understand philosophical ideas within their historical and cultural contexts.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Philosophy majors will be able to apply philosophical methods within the discipline and across disciplinary boundaries to issues and problems that individuals, communities, or governments face in the modern world.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Philosophy majors will be familiar with major historical areas, figures, and problems of philosophy.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Philosophy majors will demonstrate the ability to think and write in a logically rigorous and conceptually precise manner about complex philosophical issues.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Philosophy majors will demonstrate competency in logic and other core areas of philosophy.

Student Learning Outcome 7

Philosophy majors will develop the disposition to apply philosophical methods in a variety of contexts at the personal, interpersonal, and social levels.

Student Learning Outcome 8

Philosophy majors will use their critical thinking skills to provide original or innovative approaches to philosophical problems.


Physics (PHY1 )

Our modern lives have been overwhelmingly affected by the discoveries of physics in the twentieth century, for it is through physics that we have come to understand the fundamentals of nuclear energy, semiconductors, lasers, fiber optics, the interaction of radiation with matter, and even the workings of the universe. It is through this basic understanding that applied scientists and engineers have developed and assembled the myriad technical devices that are so much a part of modern life. The program in physics integrates all these phases of modern technology to develop a fundamental knowledge that can support a variety of technical interests and activities in future years. The major is designed to provide the Cadet a solid foundation in the essential pillars of theoretical physics-classical mechanics, electrodynamics, statistical physics, and quantum mechanics. Additionally, a strong experimental component emphasizes the skills necessary to design and build experimental apparatus and applies these skills to modern physics, lasers and optics. Opportunities are available to perform research at Army and national laboratories during the summer.

Physics Major Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives

Student Learning Outcome 1

Cadets can apply the laws of physics to formulate mathematical models of physical systems, solve the resulting equations, and apply the solutions to hypothetical and real-world problems.
a. Cadets can use advanced mathematical methods to solve physics problems.
b. Cadets can identify situations in which relativistic effects are important and apply special relativity to solve mechanics problems.
c. Cadets can apply Newtonian and Lagrangian mechanics to solve problems in classical physics.
d. Cadets can solve problems involving electro- and magnetostatics.
e. Cadets can solve problems involving electrodynamics in vacuum and in homogeneous linear media.
f. Cadets can identify phenomena and solve problems involving thermodynamics and quantum statistical mechanics.
g. Cadets can identify situations in which quantum mechanics is necessary and solve problems involving non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Cadets can apply the laws of physics to formulate and test hypotheses in an experimental setting.
a. Cadets can plan and perform experiments.
b. Cadets can analyze experimental data.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Cadets can complete academic assignments and perform research using accepted ethical and scientific standards.
a. Cadets provide sufficient citations and notes to clearly distinguish the Cadet's work from the work of others.
b. Cadets avoid using or obscuring fallacious reasoning in the presentation of solutions to technical problems.
c. Cadets are aware of acceptable scientific standards and the professional and/or personal consequences of not following them.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Cadets can communicate logical solutions to scientific and technical problems to superiors, peers, and subordinates.
a. Cadets can prepare written submissions, posters, laboratory reports, and oral briefings using the style, format, organization, and procedures common to standard scientific presentations.
b. Cadets can use sound mathematical reasoning, appropriate computational techniques, and statistical methods to explore, represent, and communicate solutions to problems.
c. Cadets use precise and accepted scientific language in all technical communications.
d. Cadets read and understand the content of general scientific publications such as Scientific American and Physics Today. They are able to follow citations to obtain background information on the material in the articles and summarize orally and in writing the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments presented in such publications to non-technical audiences.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Cadets are prepared for graduate education in physics, engineering or related fields.
a. Cadets demonstrate proficiency across the range of skills and knowledge expected of entering graduate students in reputable physics programs.
b. USMA graduates gain admission to graduate programs in technical fields at leading colleges and universities.
c. USMA graduates successfully earn advanced degrees from leading colleges and universities.


Political Science: American Politics (PAP2 )

The American Politics program provides students with the ability to explain political outcomes. The program traces the founding and evolution of our American political institutions, emphasizing how philosophical principles influenced the structure and behavior of the nation's governing apparatus. Students receive instruction in political science methods, enabling them to identify and critique methodological approaches to answering political science questions and select an appropriate method of answering their own research questions. Cadets are afforded an opportunity to study contemporary topics in public policy in depth and explain outcomes based on the actions of formal and informal political actors. The American Politics program emphasizes the role of the US military in society, its constitutional roles and responsibilities, and the shifting tenor of civil-military relations across time and levels of policy implementation. Cadets explore the military profession in the context of American political society.

American Politics Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Analyze the constitutional origins and historical development of formal institutions (Legislative, Executive, Judicial branches, bureaucracy) and informal actors (media, political parties, interest groups) in American politics.
a) Identify the fundamental principles of the U.S. Constitution that influence relevant decisions - such as power, conflict, civil rights, and civil liberties - within the American political system.
b) Examine the political behavior of individuals, actors, and institutions within American politics and the policymaking process.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Summarize the origins and development of the American political tradition, distinguishing how the historical and philosophical roots of the Republic inform and explain contemporary American politics.
a) Demonstrate critical understanding of the ancient and modern foundations of Western political thought.
b) Contrast the Western tradition with a non-Western tradition of political thought.
c) Identify the tension between liberty and security.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Describe the methods by which political scientists research, critically analyze, and explain American politics.
a) Distinguish research questions appropriate to political science.
b) Critically evaluate scholarly research based on the merits of research design.
c) Apply the scientific method using qualitative, quantitative, or experimental methods.
d) Demonstrate the ability to communicate ideas and provide critical evaluation clearly and effectively.
e) Demonstrate an appreciation for intellectual pluralism by applying more than one theoretical perspective to a particular phenomenon and assessing the relative value of alternative explanations.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Characterize U.S. civil-military relations by emphasizing the roles, responsibilities, and culture of the military profession.
a) Describe the roles and responsibilities of the military, both as a profession and as a bureaucratic entity, as established in the U.S. Constitution and through norms developed over time.
b) Discuss the major theories of modern U.S. civil-military relations.
c) Understand the challenges officers face in civil-military relations at the strategic (agenda-setting), operational (formulation and legitimization), and tactical (implementation) levels.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Describe the U.S. policy-making process.
a) Compare the strengths and limitations of the different theoretical frameworks - normative and empirical, qualitative and quantitative - in evaluating the domestic policy-making process.
b) Describe the influences of formal and informal actors on the development and implementation of U.S. foreign and domestic policy.
c) Explain the theoretical foundations, American principles, and values that influence U.S. foreign and domestic policy.


Political Science: Comparative Politics (PCP2 )

Cadets pursuing the study of Comparative Politics have the opportunity to examine and analyze the conduct of politics in diverse settings, ranging from Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, as well as the United States. Students consider sources of stability or instability in political regimes, and examine the conditions that promote democratic or authoritarian rule. The primary interests in Comparative Politics are political culture, political institutions, social structure, economics, and interstate relationships. Not only do students examine state regimes and policies, but they also explore the meanings and sources of change that may spring from the ballot box or the barrel of a rifle.

Comparative Politics Major Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives

Comparative Politics graduates are able to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Develop the ability to critically analyze diverse political systems through the use of theory and concepts.
a) Evaluate the impact of Regime Model concepts (including command, consent, interests, rights, political culture, social and economic structure, political institutions, and external variables) on a state's regime type and stability.
b) Understand and critique theories regarding the relationship between economics and regime type.
c) Understand how to formulate a hypothesis that examines a specific element of the state-societal relationship.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Learn and apply comparative methods to analyze the stability of political regimes and the efficacy of their institutions.
a) Understand the various methods social scientists use to compare regimes.
b) Understand the value of institutional comparisons across time, and of Western and non-Western comparisons.
c) Identify appropriate research question comparing two or more countries.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Understand and apply alternative perspectives when seeking to describe, explain, or predict developments in the state-societal relationship.
a) Understand theories and ideas that explain conditions for democratization.
b) Explain how external developmental aid and assistance impacts the internal dynamics of a regime.
c) Understand the differences between empirical and normative perspectives on questions of regime type.
d) Understand the importance of societal and political norms, and explain regime decisions from a non-U.S. perspective.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Apply comparative political concepts and social scientific methods to the study of a specific country, region or thematic interest.
a) Understand the social, political, and economic variables that shape the political institutions, values and interests of a particular country or region.
b) Analyze the distribution of power and patterns of political interaction to determine the unique aspects of the security situation within a region.
c) Understand the theories and issues relevant to explaining nationalism, democratization, pre- and post-conflict stability, and conflict resolution. Appreciate the importance of cultural anthropology in each of these processes.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Integrate the study of theory and policy to analyze a country's internal structure and how that structure impacts its security policy. Conduct this analysis from the viewpoint of the state and from a non-U.S. perspective.
a) Recognize individual and group biases through the study of non-Western countries and their cultures.
b) Analyze the relationship between security and defense planning in non-Western states.
c) Understand foreign perspectives on issues related to state security.


Political Science: International Relations (PIR2 )

Students majoring in International Relations (IR) study issues of conflict and cooperation in the international system. This involves examination of domestic influences on state behavior, the foreign relations of states, characteristics of the international system, and the role of non-state actors. Central concerns in IR include power, strategy, war, international cooperation, trade, and economic development. International Relations majors think critically about complex political issues, they will learn how to test hypotheses using reliable methods and evidence, evaluate the moral dimension of issues in international relations, appreciate the problem of uncertainty and its significance, and see important events and issues from multiple perspectives. As a social science, IR is organized around alternative theoretical schools of thought that seek to explain international phenomena and that can provide policy makers with the tools necessary to anticipate future developments in the international system and create policies that advance state goals. The ability to understand, anticipate and shape the complex dynamics of the international system is of direct relevance to U.S. Army officers, whose careers will be defined by the problems and opportunities that emerge within this system.

Student Learning Outcome 1

Graduates understand and are able to employ alternative theoretical approaches in order to describe, explain, or predict events or developments in international relations.
Supporting Objectives:
a. Articulate the foundational assumptions, central concepts, logical claims, and dominant criticisms of the realist, liberal, and constructivist schools of thought in international relations.
b. Use international relations theory and concepts to describe, explain, or predict an event or development in international affairs.
c. Demonstrate an appreciation for intellectual pluralism by applying more than one theoretical perspective to a particular phenomenon and assessing the relative value of alternative explanations.
d. Understand the prescriptive, policy-relevant implications of international relations theories and concepts.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Graduates are familiar with the variety of actors in international affairs and appreciate their incentives as well as the roles that they play in shaping international events and developments.
Supporting Objectives:
a. Understand the role of the international system in shaping the incentives and behavior of actors in international affairs.
b. Understand the possible domestic sources of foreign policy behavior.
c. Understand the roles non-state actors may play in international affairs.
d. Understand the ancient and modern foundations of Western political thought.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Graduates understand the key elements of social science research as the basis of a rigorous approach to developing and evaluating alternative explanations for international relations phenomena.
Supporting Objectives:
a. Can apply standards of causal logic and evidence from the social sciences to critically examine the written work of others.
b. Can apply the basic writing conventions of the social sciences, with an emphasis on sound structure, logical argumentation, and proper use of valid evidence in their own written work.
c. Understand the differences between and potential value of empirical and normative approaches to important questions of political life.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Graduates obtain in-depth understanding of a particular region or international relations issue.
Supporting Objectives:
a. Apply international relations theories, political science concepts, and the standards of social science research and writing to the study of specific regional or thematic issues.
b. Refine intellectual interests and develop a commitment to lifelong learning through exploration of thematic and regional issues.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Graduates appreciate the relevance and value of international relations theories and concepts to issues of central concern to Army officers and national security professionals.
Supporting Objectives:
a. Apply international relations theories and political science concepts to analyze and assess current international events and developments relevant to U.S. national security.
b. Integrate the study of theory and policy through analysis of the international, domestic, organizational, and technological influences on U.S. national security policy.


Psychology (PSY1 )

Psychology is one of four majors available through the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership. Psychology is arguably one of the most applicable majors for future Army officers. Graduates gain specialized skills and knowledge related to understanding human behavior, making them uniquely prepared to understand and ultimately lead people. The study of psychology investigates human behavior, cognition, and emotion by analyzing the complex interactions between environmental, social, cultural, and biological influences. Opportunities are available during the summer to apply the lessons learned in the classroom in a variety of settings.

The Psychology major provides cadets a choice of two tracks:

- The Applied General Psychology track is focused on applying knowledge of psychology to improve the development, performance, and well-being of individuals (soldiers).
- The Organizational Psychology and Leadership track is focused on applying knowledge of psychology to select and develop leaders, and improve the effectiveness of groups, teams, and organizations.

Psychology Major Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Graduates demonstrate fundamental knowledge and comprehension of the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, historical trends, and empirical findings; and demonstrate the ability to apply their knowledge to address behavioral issues.

a. Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.
b. Demonstrate a working knowledge of psychology's content domains.
c. In the Applied General Psychology Track, the emphasis is on applying knowledge of individual and social psychology to address issues relevant to the development, performance, and well-being of people (soldiers).
d. In the Organizational Psychology and Leadership Track, the emphasis is on applying knowledge of human behavior in organizations to: a) select and develop leaders/leadership, and b) enhance organizational effectiveness.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Graduates demonstrate scientific reasoning and problem solving skills, including effective research methods.

a. Graduates demonstrate psychology information literacy; and use scientific reasoning to design and conduct basic psychological research, interpret data, and draw appropriate conclusions about psychological phenomena.
b. Graduates engage in innovative and integrative thinking and problem solving.
c. Graduates incorporate sociocultural factors in scientific inquiry.
d. In the AGP Track, the emphasis is on critical thinking in the application of psychological research; and on conducting empirical research studying issues pertinent to the development, performance, and wellbeing of people.
e. In the OPL Track, the emphasis is on critical thinking in the application of research and other writings pertinent to human behavior in organizations; and on conducting empirical research studying issues pertinent to leadership and organizational effectiveness.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Graduates demonstrate ethically and socially responsible behaviors for professional and personal settings in a landscape that involves increasing diversity.

a. Graduates apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.
b. Graduates build and enhance interpersonal relationships
c. Graduates embrace values consistent with the professional military ethic, which contribute to positive outcomes in work settings and in building a society responsive to multicultural and global concerns.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Graduates demonstrate competent written, oral, and interpersonal communication skills.

a. Graduates demonstrate effective writing and presentation skills for different purposes (e.g., they can produce a research study; and present information to a professional audience or decision maker).
b. Graduates interact effectively with others for different purposes (e.g. they demonstrate relevant skills such as counseling, coaching, and/or negotiations).

Student Learning Outcome 5

Graduates apply psychology-specific content and skills, effective self-reflection, project-management skills, teamwork skills, and career preparation.

a. Graduates apply psychological content and skills to career goals.
b. Graduates exhibit self-efficacy and self-regulation.
c. Graduates effectively manage individual and team projects and professional requirements.
d. Graduates are inspired to life-long learning in disciplines pertinent to psychology and leadership.


Sociology Major (SOC1 )

Sociology is one of four majors available through the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership. Sociology is arguably one of the most applicable majors for future Army officers. Graduates gain specialized skills and knowledge related to understanding human behavior, making them uniquely prepared to understand and ultimately lead people. The study of sociology investigates human behavior, cognition, group dynamics, and social institutions by analyzing the complex interactions between environmental, social, and cultural influences.

Sociology Major Student Learning Outcomes and Supporting Objectives:

Student Learning Outcome 1

(COMMUNICATION): Graduates listen, read, write, and speak effectively.

      (a) Objective 1.1 (Speaking/Oral): Express ideas in a clear and coherent manner in oral presentations in group settings.
      (b) Objective 1.2 (Written): Express ideas in a clear and coherent manner in written correspondence.
         (1) 1.2a: Be able to write a clear, grammatical, well-organized report of the findings from sociological data analysis.
(2) 1.2b: Write a clear and concise sociological analysis account of a social event, topic, issue, or problem.
      (c) Objective 1.3 (Listening): Be able to read or listen to professional-level sociological reports with sufficient understanding to summarize and provide an accurate overview.
      (d) Objective 1.4 (Reading): Be able to comprehend, analyze, evaluate, and apply scholarly research reports and literature.

Student Learning Outcome 2

(INNOVATIVE): Graduates are creative and critical thinkers. They can frame a problem from multiple perspectives; identify underlying assumptions; understand central concepts relevant to the situation; use evidence to make well-reasoned decisions; understand the consequences of their decisions and actions; and communicate their decisions clearly.
      
      (a) Objective 2.1: Creative thinking
         (1) 2.1a: Be able to identify the structure of an argument presented in written form (conclusion, assumptions, premises, supporting evidence, and weaknesses).
         (2) 2.1b: Be able to identify the basic fallacies in reasoning such as appeal to ignorance, the gambler's fallacy, hasty generalization, false dilemma, slippery slope, ad hominem arguments, the straw man fallacy, and other fallacies and flaws in reasoning.
      (b) Objective 2.2: Define a Problem

Student Learning Outcome 3

(CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE): Graduates are both cross-culturally and interculturally competent. They understand patterns of human behavior and can use this knowledge to analyze and understand situations where people and groups from different cultures are in contact, and consequently find effective solutions to the problems they will face as officers.

      (a) Objective 3.1: Knowledge of one's own and other cultures
         (1) 3.1a: Recognize and discuss the impact of inequality, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and other social factors and structures on different groups in society.
         (2) 3.1b: Discuss the social factors (including institutional factors) that create and perpetuate inequality.
         (3) 3.1c: Describe the social processes that create and perpetuate prejudice and discrimination, including ethnocentrism and xenophob
         (4) 3.1d: Be able to understand, analyze, and interact effectively in foreign cultures.

Student Learning Outcome 4

(ADAPTABLE): Graduates are adaptable and mentally agile. They anticipate and respond effectively to the problems they will face as Army officers by willingly engaging in new environments even in the face of considerable ambiguity in a changing and dynamic world.

      (a) Objective 4.1: Problem Solving   
(1) 4.1a: quantitative and qualitative data
(2) 4.1b: policies and programs
(3) 4.1c: solve problems
(b) Objective 4.2: Transfer of knowledge
         (1) 4.2a: Identify ethical issues
         (2) 4.2b: Understand professional codes of ethics
(3) 4.2c: Identify studies
         (4) 4.2d: Define theory and describe its role in sociology.
(c) Objective 4.3: Analytical reasoning
(1) 4.3a: Understand how to collect and analyze data
(2) 4.3b: Understand how to identify and communicate limitations
(3) 4.3c: Use databases
(4) 4.3d: Use digital resources

Student Learning Outcome 5

(EMPOWERED) Graduates are self-directed (empowered). They demonstrate the capability and desire to pursue progressive and lifelong intellectual development. They are aware of their own abilities and limitations, and are independent learners with the competence and confidence to try new activities and engage new ideas.

      (a) Objective 5.1: Intellectual development and improvement
         (1) 5.1a: describe and apply the sociological perspective and imagination.
         (2) 5.1b: Develop citizenship skills.
(b) Objective 5.2: Self-awareness
(1) 5.2a: Explain how structural, cultural, and group factors influence interactions and the development of the self.
      (2) 5.2b: social interaction and the self
      (3) 5.2c: "personal troubles" and "public issues."
      (4) 5.2d: individual and group processes
(c) Objective 5.3: Independent Learning
   (d) Objective 5.4: Confidence


Systems and Decision Sciences (SDS0 )

The Systems and Decision Sciences (SDS) discipline is concerned with system design, management, and decision analysis of tangible and abstract systems in accordance with performance requirements, budget, and schedules. The program combines elements of traditional engineering, systems engineering, finance, decision analysis, and organizational management courses. Cadets will learn the methods, processes, and tools (MPTs) needed to understand and conduct meaningful decision analysis in support of complex systems. These large systems require an interdisciplinary approach rooted in technical, management, and leadership skills. Industry and domain based concentrations are available, to include Project Management, Logistics Management, Personnel Management, Defense Systems, Financial Systems, Cyber Security, Management Science, International Affairs, and Mathematical Modeling. Systems and Decision Sciences graduates are ready to lead multidisciplinary teams, perform systems thinking, and understand the MPTs needed to model complex, ill-defined, and interdisciplinary problems characterized by global, political, social, military, economic, and technological challenges. A culminating real-world, year-long capstone is required to employ the MPTs associated with complex systems and address issues, such as stakeholder analysis, analytical methods, project and cost management, and the political, social, and environmental, etc., realties of working on large, ill-defined, interdisciplinary problems. This major will produce graduates with technical, high-level business and management skills, and engineering depth to prepare them for future academic and professional opportunities in a society increasingly dominated by technological change.

Each graduate will be able to:

Student Learning Outcome 1

Use systems and decision science methods, processes, and tools (MPTs) to solve diverse problems in engineering and non-engineering domains, while considering moral and ethical standards specific to the locale.

Student Learning Outcome 2

Employ systems thinking to identify, scope, understand, analyze problems, and specify the needs of multiple stakeholders.

Student Learning Outcome 3

Develop innovative system solutions based upon sound decision science techniques and clearly articulate the results to all stakeholders.

Student Learning Outcome 4

Perform systems decision-making that considers qualitative and quantitative aspects of the problem.

Student Learning Outcome 5

Accurately, clearly, concisely, and persuasively report findings, conclusions, and recommendations to the stakeholders in a multicultural context.

Student Learning Outcome 6

Lead interdisciplinary teams to implement effective and efficient solutions by melding traditional and non-traditional engineering domains.

Student Learning Outcome 7

Demonstrate the skills and interest for intellectual growth and learning for a career of professional excellence and service to the nation as an officer in the United States Army.


Systems Engineering (SEN1 )

Systems Engineers innovatively solve large, complex problems in a technologically advanced environment by engineering solutions which provide significant value to clients and their organizations. Systems Engineers also lead interdisciplinary teams of engineers and others in the development and implementation of technical solutions to complex issues facing organizations. Systems Engineering majors learn to think systematically, engineer systematically, and approach decisions systematically. The Systems Engineering program is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org.

Thinking systematically involves understanding the entire environment in which the system operates and includes the needs, wants, and desires of all the stakeholders of the system. Engineering systematically involves identifying and understanding the required system functions, developing alternative system solutions, and applying the basic modeling and simulation tools required to analyze the system from an engineering perspective. Approaching decisions systematically involves leading and participating in multi-disciplinary teams to innovate and implement visionary solutions to these complex problems.

The recent rapid growth and success of systems engineering can be attributed to advances in technology and the transition of society to a highly networked, globally-oriented information age which results in a dramatic increase in the complexity of problems. These problems require systems thinking and a holistic approach to problem solving that is at the heart of the systems engineering discipline. It is the challenge of systems engineers to harness and direct technology toward solving problems most often related to processes and operations. Ultimately, the study and application of systems engineering principles involve innovation and the creative application of analytical models to facilitate sound decision making.

Systems Engineering Program Educational Objectives: Within 5 to 7 years of graduation each graduate of the Systems Engineering program will have:
1. Effectively led interdisciplinary teams to solve complex problems.
2. Demonstrated intellectual growth and continued self-improvement through self-study, continuing education, or professional development.
3. Fostered an organizational ethos that promotes the professional, moral, ethical, and respectful treatment of all.
4. Analyzed, designed, implemented, and maintained systems throughout their lifecycles.
5. Clearly communicated engineering solutions and analysis to leaders, both orally and in writing, to enable sound decision-making in the presence of uncertain, biased, or confounding influences.   
6. Approached problems holistically while recognizing each system as a whole, with its fit and relationship with the environment being primary concerns.

Systems Engineering Student Outcomes: To achieve these objectives, cadets will demonstrate the following Systems Engineering Student Outcomes at the time of graduation:

Student Learning Outcome 1

an ability to identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles of engineering, science, and mathematics

Student Learning Outcome 2

an ability to apply engineering design to produce solutions that meet specified needs with consideration of public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors

Student Learning Outcome 3

an ability to communicate effectively with a range of audiences

Student Learning Outcome 4

an ability to recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgments, which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts

Student Learning Outcome 5

an ability to function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a collaborative and inclusive environment, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives

Student Learning Outcome 6

an ability to develop and conduct appropriate experimentation, analyze and interpret data, and use engineering judgment to draw conclusions

Student Learning Outcome 7

an ability to acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies